The South African Afrikaans / English Physics Dictionary




UNIT/TERM QUANTITY/ENTITY SYMBOL EENHEID/TERM SI RELATION

ab- (abbreviation of absolute) prefix mainly used with cgs electromagnetic units

Prefix (in cgs system))


ab- (afkorting van absoluut)


abampere

Electric current

aA

abampère

10 A

abcoulomb

Electromagnetic (EM) unit of charge

aC

abcoulomb

10 C

abfarad

Cgs EM unit of capacitance

aF

abfarad

1 x 109 F

abhenry

Cgs EM unit of electric inductance

aH

abhenry

1 x 10–9 H

abmho (also absiemens)

Cgs EM unit of conductance


abmho (ook absiemens)

1 x 109 Ωz-1

1 x 109 S

abohm

Electric resistance

abohm

1 x 10–9Ω

abvolt

Cgs EM unit of electric potential

aV

abvolt

1 x 10-8 V

abvolt per cm

Cgs EM unit of electric field strength

aV.cm–1

abvolt per cm

1 x 10-6 V.m-1

acre

Land surface area


akker

4 046,86 m2

Admiralty mile (UK)

Length; distance (navigation)


seemyl (VK)

1 853 m

1,853 km

ampere

Electric current

A

ampère

1 A

ampere (international, of 1948)

Electric current

A

ampère (internasionaal, van 1948)

0,999 835 A

ampere hour

Charge

Ah

ampère-uur

3,6 x 103 C

ampere metre squared

EM moment; magnetic dipole moment

A.m2

ampère-meter-kwadraat

1 A.m2


ampere per kilogram

Exposure rate (ionising radiation)

A.kg-1

ampère per kilogram

1 A.kg-1

ampere per metre

Magnetic field strength

A.m-1

ampère per meter

1 A.m-1

ampere per square centimetre

Electric current density

A.cm-2

ampère per vierkante sentimeter

1 x 104 A.m-2

ampere per square metre

Electric current density

A.m–2

ampère per vierkante meter

1 A.m–2

ångström

Length; wavelength

Å

ångström

1 x 10-10 m

0.1 nm

apothecaries ounce (see ounce, apothecaries)





are

Area

a

aar

100 m2

astronomical unit

Length; Distance (astronomy)

AU

astronomiese eenheid

149,598 x 109 m






atmosphere (standard)

Pressure

atm

atmosfeer (standaard)

101 325 Pa

101,325 kPa

atmosphere (technical)

Pressure

at

atmosfeer (tegnies) (???)

98 066,5 Pa

98,066 5 kPa

atomic mass unit

Mass or energy equivalent of mass of (one twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

u (amu)

atoommassa-eenheid (’n twaalfde van die massa van ‘n 12 C-atoom)


1,660 540 × 10-27 kg

931,49 MeV

atto-

Prefix

a

atto-

10-18

bar

Pressure

bar

bar

1 x 105 Pa

100 kPa

barn

Area: Particle interaction cross section

b

barn

1 x 10-28 m2

barrel

Volume (petroleum)

bbl

vat

0.158 99 m3

158,99 l

becquerel

Radioactivity: Activity of radioactive source

Bq

becquerel

1 s-1

bel

Sound intensity level

B

bel


biot (see abampere)

Electric current

Bi

biot (kyk abampère)

10 A

British thermal unit (international)

Heat quantity;

Energy

Btu

Britse warmte-eenheid (internasionale)

1 055 J

1,055 kJ

British thermal unit (thermochemical)

Heat quantity;

Energy

Btu

Britse warmte-eenheid (termochemiese)

1 054 J

1,054 kJ

bushel (UK)


Volume

bu

boesel (VK)


3,636 9 x 10-2 m3

36,369 l


bushel (USA)

Volume

bu

boesel (VSA)

3,523 9 x 10-2 m3

36,239 l

calorie (also calory) (international)

Heat quantity

cal

kalorie

4,186 8 J


calorie (also calory) (thermochemical)

Heat quantity

cal

kalorie

4, 184 J

calorie (kilogram or large) [see kilocalorie]





candela

Luminous intensity

cd

kandela


1 lm.sr-1

1,471 mW.sr-1

candela per square metre (also nit)

Luminance

cd.m-2

(nt)

kandela per vierkante meter


1 cd.m-2

1,471 mW.s-1.m-2

candle (see candela)

Luminous intensity

cd

kers (sien kandela)

1 cd

Cape foot [see foot, Cape]





Cape rood [see rood, Cape]





carat (metric)

Mass

ct

karaat (metriek)

2 x 10-4 kg

200 mg


Celsius [see degree Celcius]

Temperature

°C

Celsius

t (°C) = T (K) - 273,15

centi-

Prefix

c

senti-

10-2

centimetre

Length;

Distance;

Wavelength;

Displacement

cm

sentimeter

1 x 10-2 m

centimetre of mercury

(at 0 °C)

Pressure

cm Hg

sentimeter kwikkolom

(by 0 °C)

1,333 224 kPa

centimetre of water

(at 4 °C)

Pressure

cP

sentimeter waterkolom

(by 4 °C)

98,063 Pa

centipoise

Viscosity

cP

sentipoise

1 mPa.s

centistokes

Kinematic viscosity

cSt

sentistokes

1 x 10-6 m2.s-1

chain (eng. or Ramsden’s)

Length; Distance


ketting (ing. of Ramsden)

30,48 m (Ramsden / Ramden Spelling Louw met s ???)

chain (surveying or Gunter’s)

Length, Distance


ketting (landmeting of Gunter)

20,116 8m

circular mil

Area (cross-section of round conductors)

cir mil

mil (sirkulêr)

5,067 075 × 10-10 m2

5,067 075 × 10-4 mm2

506,707 5 µm2

clo

Amount of insulation

(skin temperature)


clo

0,200 371 m2.K.W–1

coulomb

Electric charge;

Quantity of electricity;

Flux of displacement

C

coulomb

1 C

1 A.s

coulomb metre

Electric dipole moment

C.m

coulomb-meter

1 C.m


coulomb per cubic centimetre

Electric volume charge density

C.cm-3

coulomb per kubieke sentimeter

1 x 106 C.m-3

coulomb per cubic metre

Electric volume charge density

C.m-3

coulomb per kubieke meter

1 C.m-3

coulomb per square centimetre

Electric surface charge density

C.cm-2

coulomb per vierkante sentimeter

1 x 104 C.m-2

coulomb per square metre

Dielectric polarisation displacement

C.m-2

coulomb per vierkante meter

1 C.m-2

cubic centimetre

Volume

cm3

kubieke sentimeter

1 x 10-6 m3

cubic foot

Volume

ft3

kubieke voet

2,831 7 x 10-2 m3

cubic metre

Volume

m3

kubieke meter

1 m3

cubic millimetre

Volume

mm3

kubieke millimeter

1 x 10-9 m3

cubic metre per kilomole

Inverse of particle density; Molar volume

m3.kmol-1

kubieke meter per kilomol

1 x 10-3 m3.mol-1

1 l.mol–1

cubic metre per mole

Inverse of particle density; Molar volume

m3.mol-1

kubieke meter per mol

1 m3.mol-1

cubic yard

Volume

yd3

kubieke jaart

0,764 555 m3

cup (UK)

Volume


koppie (VK)

284,131 ml

cup (USA)

Volume


koppie (VSA)

236,588 ml

curie

Radioactivity, Activity of radioactive source

Ci

curie

37 × 1010 Bq

37 ns-1

cusec (cubic foot per second)

Flow rate


kusek (kubieke voet per sekonde)

0,028 317 m3 s-1

28,317 l.s–1

cycle per second

Frequency

s-1

siklus per sekonde

1 Hz

day (mean solar)

Time

d

dag (gemiddelde sontyd) / middelbare sontyd??? Louw

86,4 x 103 s

day (sidereal)



dag (sterretyd) (sterredag)

86,164 x 103 s

debye

Electric dipole moment

D (b)

debye

3,335 64 x 10-30 C.m


deca-

Prefix

da

deka-

10

decanewton

Force

daN

dekanewton

10 N

deci-

Prefix

d

desi-

10-1

decibel

Sound intensity level

dB

desibel

0,1 B

decimetre

Length

dm

desimeter

0,1 m

degree (angle)

Angle

...°

graad (hoek)


θ/180 rad

17,453 mrad


degree Celsius

(degree centigrade)

Temperature

°C

graad Celsius

T (K) = t (°C) + 273,15

t(°C)=T(K) - 273,15

degree Celsius

Temperature interval

°C

graad Celsius

1 K

degree Fahrenheit

Temperature

°F

graad Fahrenheit


T(K)

=[t(°F) + 459,67] × 5/9


t(°C)=[t(°F) – 32] × 5/9

degree Fahrenheit

Temperature interval

°F

graad Fahrenheit

0,555 556 (5/9) K

degree Rankine

Temperature and temperature interval


graad Rankine

T(K) = t(R) × 5/9

degree Rèaumur

Temperature

°R

graad Rèaumur

T(K) = t(°R) × 0.8 + 273.15 (Gaan na – aangepas van Louw)

drachm (fluid)

Volume


dragme (vloeistof)

3,552 ml

drachm (apothecaries)

Mass


dragme (aptekers)

3,887 93 g

dram (av)

Mass


dragme (av)

1,771 8 g

dioptre

Refractive power of a lens

diopter

1 m-1






dyne

Force (cgs)

dyn

dine

10 µN

1 cm.g.s-2

e

A constant (base of natural logarithms)

e

e

2,718 281 8

ell (obsolete)

Length


el

0,685 8 m

electronvolt

Energy

eV

elektronvolt

1,602 177 x 10-19 J






Fahrenheit [see degree Fahrenheit]


Temperature









erg

Energy; Radiant energy (cgs)

erg

erg

1 x 10-7 J

1 cm2.g.s-2


exa-

Prefix

E

eksa-

1 ×1018

farad

Electric capacitance

F

farad

1 F

1 C.V-1

farad (International of 1948)

Electric capacitance

F

farad (internasionaal van 1948)

0,999 505 F

faraday (based on carbon-12)

Charge

F

faraday (gebaseer op

koolstof-12)

9,648 5 × 104 C


fathom (UK)

Length (usually for

water depth)

fath

vadem (vaam) (VK)

1,828 8 m

femto-

Prefix

f

femto-

10-15

femtometre

Length

fm

femtometer

1 x 10-15 m

fermi

Length

fm

fermi

1 fm

fluid ounce (UK)


Volume

fl oz

vloeistofons (VK)


28,413 ml


fluid ounce (USA)

Volume

fl oz

vloeistofons (VSA)

29,573 ml

foot

Length

ft

voet

0,304 8 m

foot (Cape)

Length

ft

voet (Kaapse)

0,314 858 m

foot-candela

foot-candle

Illuminance

ft cd

voet-kandela (VK)

voet-kers

10,764 lx (??? gaan na: WEM)

foot-lambert

Luminance

ft-L

voet-lambert

3,426 258 cd.m-2

foot poundal

Energy

ft-pdl

voet-pondaal

0,042 140 J







foot pound-force

Torque

Energy, Work

ft-lbf

voet-pondkrag

1,355 818 N.m

1,355 818 J

franklin

Electric charge (ESU)

Fr

franklin

3,335 6 x 10-10 C

frigorie

Rate of heat extraction

Refrigeration


frigorie

1,162 639 W

furlong

Length

fur

furlong

201,168 m

gal

Acceleration of free fall; Gravitational acceleration (cgs)

Gal

gal

1 x 10-2 m.s-2

1 cm.s–2

gallon (UK)

Volume

gal

gelling (VK)

4,546 l

gallon (USA)

Volume

gal

gelling (VSA)

3,785 l

gamma

Mass

γ

gamma

1 × 10-9 kg

1 μg

gamma

Magnetic flux density

Magnetic inductance

γ

gamma

1 x 10-9 T

1 nT

gauss

Magnetic flux density

Magnetic inductance

Gs (G)

gauss

1 × 10-4 T

0,1 mT

giga-

Prefix

G

giga-

109

gigahertz

Frequency

GHz

gigahertz

1 x 109 Hz

giganewton per square metre

Pressure

GN.m-2

giganewton per vierkante meter

1 x 109 Pa

gigaohm

Electric resistance;

Impedance

GΩ

gigaohm

1 x 109Ω.

gigaohm metre

Electric resistivity

GΩ.m

gigaohm-meter

1 x 109Ω.m

gigawatt

Power

GW

gigawatt

1 x 109 W

gigawatt hour

Energy

GW.h

gigawatt-uur

3,6 × 1012 J

3,6 TJ

gilbert

Magnetomotive force (cgs)


Gi (Gb)

gilbert

0.7958 A

1/(4π) abamp


gill (UK)


Volume


gi

gill (VK)

1,420 653 x 10-4 m3


gill (USA)

Volume

gi

gill (VSA)

1,182 941 x 10-4 m3

gon

Plane angle

gon

gon


π/200 rad

15,708 mrad

grad (grade)

Plane angle

grad

grad (grade)


π/200 rad

15,708 mrad

grain

Mass

gr

grein

6, 4799 × 10-5 kg

64,799 mg

gram

Mass

g

gram

1 x 10-3 kg

gram per cubic centimetre

Density

g.cm-3

gram per kubieke sentimeter

1 x 103 kg.m–3


gram per litre

Density

g.l-1

gram per liter

1 x 10-3 kg.l-1

1 kg.m-3

gram per millilitre

Density

g.ml-1

gram per milliliter

1 kg.l-1

1 × 103 kg.m-3

gram per mole

Molecular mass

g.mol-1

gram per mol

1 x 10-3 kg.mol-1

gram-rad (obsolete)


Absorbed radiation energy

(obsolete)

g.rad

gram-rad

10 µJ

gram-röntgen

(gram-roentgen) (obsolete)

Ionisation charge caused by radiation (obsolete)

g-röntgen

gram-röntgen

258 nC

gray

Absorbed radiation dose (SI)


Gy

gray

1 J.kg-1


hand (approx 4 inch)

Height (of a horse)


hand

0,1 m

hectare

Surface area

ha

hektaar

1 x 104 m2

hecto-

Prefix

h

hekto-

102

hectobar

Pressure

hbar

hektobar

1 x 107 Pa

henry

Electric inductance

Permeance

H

henry

1 m2.kg.s-2.A-2

1 V.s.A-1

1 Wb.A-1

henry (International of 1948)

Electric inductance

H

henry (internasionaal van 1948)

1,000 495 H

henry per metre

Permeability;

Inductance per unit length

H.m-1

henry per meter


1 H m–1


hertz

Frequency (cycles per second)

Hz

hertz

1 s-1

horsepower (boiler)

Power


perdekrag (stoomketel)

9,809 50 kW

horsepower (UK)

Power


perdekrag (VK)

746 W

horsepower (metric)

Power


perdekrag (metriek)

735,499 W

hour

Time

h

uur

3 600 s

hour (sideral)

Time

h

uur (sterretyd)

3,590 ks

hubble constant

Expansion of universe

H

Hubble-konstante

50-100 km.s-1.Mpc-1

hundredweight (short)

Mass

cwt

sentenaar (klein)

45,359 kg

hundredweight (long)

Mass

cwt

sentenaar (groot of Engelse)

50,802 kg

inch

Length

in or “

duim

2,54 x 10-2 m

25,4 mm

joule

Energy;

Quantity of heat;

Work; Radiant energy

Acoustic energy;

Energy imparted;

Mean energy expended per ion pair

J

joule

1 kg.m2.s-2

1 N.m



1 V.A.s

joule per degree Celsius

Entropy

J.°C-1

joule per graad Celsius

1 J K-1


joule metre squared per kilogram

Total mass stopping power

J.m2.kg-1

joule-meterkwadraat per kilogram

1 J.m2.kg-1

joule per cubic metre

Radiant energy density;

Acoustic energy density

J.m-3

joule per kubieke meter


1 J.m-3

joule per kelvin

Entropy

Heat capacity

J.K-1

joule per kelvin

1 J.K-1

joule per kelvin mole

Molar entropy;

Molar heat capacity

J.K-1.mol-1

joule per mol-kelvin

1 J K-1.mol-1

joule per kilogram

Heat content;

Specific absorption;

Absorbed dose;

Kerma;

Specific energy imparted;

Dose equivalent (weighted);

Equivalent dose (weighted);

Effective dose (weighted)

J.kg-1

joule per kilogram

1 J.kg-1


joule per kilogram per degree Celsius

Specific heat capacity

J.kg-1.°C-1

joule per kilogram per graad Celsius

1 J.kg-1.°C-1


joule per kilogram per second

Absorbed dose rate;

etc. (see joule per kilogram)

J.kg-1.s-1


joule per kg per sekonde

1 J.kg-1.s-1


joule per kilogram kelvin

Specific heat;

Specific entropy

J.kg-1.K-1

joule per kilogram-kelvin

J.kg-1.K-1


joule per kilomole degree Celsius

Molecular specific heat

J.kmol-1.°C-1

joule per kilomolgraad Celsius

1 × 10-3 J.mol-1.°C-1

joule per kilomole kelvin

Molecular specific heat

J.kmol-1

K-1

joule per kilomol-kelvin

1 × 10-3 J.mol-1.°C-1

joule per metre

Linear energy transfer;

Lineal energy

J.m-1

joule per meter

1 J.m-1

joule per mole

Molar energy

J.mol-1

joule per mol

1 J.mol-1


joule per mole degree Celsius

Molar entropy;

Molar heat capacity

J.mol-1.°C-1

joule per mol-graad Celsius

1 J.mol-1 °C–1


joule per mole kelvin

Molar entropy;

Molar heat capacity

J.mol-1.K-1

joule per mol-kelvin

1 J.mol-1.K-1

joule per second (also watt)

Energy flux

J.s-1

joule per sekonde (ook watt)

1 J.s-1

1 W

joule per square centimetre

Radiant exposure

J.cm-2

joule per vierkante sentimeter

1 x 104 J.m-2

joule per square metre

Radiant exposure;

Energy fluence;

Energy flux density

J.m-2

joule per vierkante meter

1 J.m-2

joule per square metre per steradian

Time-integrated radiance

J.m-2.sr-1

joule per vierkante meter per steradiaal

1 J.m-2.sr-1

kayser

Wave number


kayser

100 m-1

kelvin

Temperature (thermodynamic temperature)

K

kelvin

1 K


t(°C)=T(K) - 273,15

kilo-

Prefix

k

kilo-

103

kiloampere

Electric current

kA

kiloampère

1 x 103 A

kiloampere per metre

Magnetic field strength

kA.m-1

kiloampère per meter

1 x 103 A.m-1

kiloampere per square metre

Electric current density

kA.m-2

kiloampère per vierkante meter

1 x 103 A.m-2

kilocalorie (also kilogram calorie or large calorie) (international)

Heat quantity

kcal, Cal

kilokalorie (internasionaal)

4,186 8 kJ

kilocoulomb per cubic metre

Charge density;

Volume density of electric charge

kC.m-3

kilocoulomb per kubieke meter

1 x 103 C.m-3

kilocycles per second

Frequency

kHz

kilosiklusse per sekonde

1 x 103 Hz

kiloelectronvolt

Energy

keV

kilo-elektronvolt

1 keV

1,602177 × 1016 J

kilogram

Mass

kg

kilogram

1 kg

kilogram calorie [see kilocalorie]





kilogram metre per second

Linear momentum

kg.m.s-1

kilogram-meter per sekonde

1 kg.m.s-1

kilogram metre squared per second

Angular momentum

kg.m2.s-1

kilogram-meterkwadraat per sekonde

1 kg.m2.s-1

kilogram per cubic decimetre

Mass density

kg.dm-3

kilogram per kubieke desimeter

1 x 103 kg.m-3

kilogram per cubic metre

Mass density

kg.m-3

kilogram per kubieke meter

1 kg.m-3

kilogram per litre

Density

kg.l-1

kilogram per liter

1 kg.l-1

1 × 103 kg.m-3

kilogram per mole

Molecular mass;

Molar mass

kg.mol-1

kilogram per mol

kg.mol-1

kilogram per second

Mass flow rate

kg.s-1

kilogram per sekonde

kg.s-1

kilogram per square metre

Moment of interia

kg.m-2

kilogram per vierkante meter

1 kg.m-2

kilojoule

Energy; etc (see joule)

kJ

kilojoule

1 x 103 J

kilojoule per degree Celsius

Entropy;

Heat capacity

kJ.°C-1

kilojoule per graad Celsius

1 x 103 J.°C-1

1 x 103 J.K.-1

kilojoule per kelvin

Entropy; Heat capacity

kJ.K-1

kilojoule per kelvin

1 x 103 J.K.-1

kilojoule per kilogram

Specific energy

kJ.kg-1

kilojoule per kilogram

1 x 103 J.kg-1

kilojoule per kilogram degree Celsius

Specific entropy;

Specific heat capacity

kJ.kg-1.°C-1

kilojoule per kilogram per graad Celsius

1 x 103 J.kg-1.°C-1

1 x 103 J.kg-1.K-1

kilojoule per kilogram kelvin

Specific entropy;

Specific heat capacity

kJ.kg-1.K-1

kilojoule per kilogram-kelvin

1 x 103 J.kg-1.K-1

kilojoule per square metre

Radiant exposure

kJ.m-2

kilojoule per vierkante meter

1 x 103 J.m-2

kilolitre

Volume

kl

kiloliter

1 kl

1 m3

kilometre

Length; Distance; Wavelength

km

kilometer

1 x 103 m

kilometre per hour

Speed; Velocity

km.h-1

kilometer per uur

1 x 103 m.h-1

0.277 778 m.s-1

kilomole

Substance quantity; etc

[see mole]

kmol

kilomol

1 x 103 mol

kilomole per cubic metre

Concentration

kmol.m-3

kilomol per kubieke meter

1 x 103 mol.m-3

kilomole per kilogram

Molality

kmol.kg-1

kilomol per kilogram

1 x 103 mol.kg-1

kilomole per litre

Concentration

kmol.l-1

kilomol per liter

1 x 103 mol.l-1

1 × 106 mol.m-3

kilonewton

Force

kN

kilonewton

1 x 103 N

kilonewton metre

Work, Moment of force; Torque

kN.m

kilonewton-meter

1 x 103 N.m

kilonewton per square metre

Pressure

kN.m-2

kilonewton per vierkante meter

1 kN.m-2

1 kPa

kilo-ohm

Electric resistance;

etc [see ohm]

kilo-ohm

1 x 103Ω

kilo-ohm metre

Electric resistivity

kΩ.m

kilo-ohm-meter

1 x 103Ω.m

kilopond (kilogram-force)

Force

kp

kilopond

9,806 7 N

kilosecond

Time

ks

kilosekonde

1 x 103 s

kilosiemens

Electric conductance

kS

kilosiemens

1 x 103 S

1 x 103Ω-1

kilosiemens per metre

Electric conductivity

kS.m-1

kilosiemens per meter

1 x 103 S.m-1


kilovolt per metre

Electric field strength

kV.m-1

kilovolt per meter

1 x 103 V.m-1

kilowatt

Power

kW

kilowatt

1 x 103 W

kilowatt hour

Energy; Power consumption

kW.h

kilowatt-uur

3,6 MJ

kip (1000 pound-force)

Force


kip

4,448 22 kN






knot (nautical mile per hour)

Speed

kn

knoop (seemyl per uur)

0,514 77 m.s-1

lambda

Volume

lambda

1 x 10-9 m3

lambert

Luminance;

Brightness

L

lambert

3 183 cd.m-2

langley

Solar radiation


langley

41 849 J.m-2

large calorie [see kilocalorie]





leaguer

Volume


lêer

577,353 l

light year

Length;

Distance (astronomy)

l.y.

ligjaar

9,460 55 × 1015 m

9,46 x 1012 km

litre

Volume

l or L

liter

1 x 10-3 m3

litre atmosphere

Energy

l.atm

liter-atmosfeer

101,328 J

long hundredweight [see hundredweight (long)]





lumen

Luminance

Luminous flux

lm

lumen

1 cd.sr

1,47 mW (Check and correct further down if required ???)

1,47 x 10-3 W

lumen hour

Quantity of light

lm.h

lumen-uur

3 600 lm.s

5,292 J

lumen per square foot

[see lumen per square metre]

lm.ft2

lumen per vierkante voet

10,764 lx

lumen per square metre (also lux)

Luminous exitance;

Luminous flux density;

Luminous fluence rate

lm.m-2

lx

lumen per vierkante meter

1 lx


1,47 x 10-3 W.m–2

lumen second

Quantity of light

lm.s

(talbot)

lumen-sekonde

1 lm.s

1,47 x 10-3 J

lumen second per cubic metre

Luminous density

lm.s.m-3

lumen-sekonde per kubieke meter

1 lm.s.m-3

1,47 x 10-3 J.m-3

lux

Illuminance;

Illumination

lx

lux

1 lm.m-2

1 cd.sr.m-2.

1,476 x 10-3 W.m-2


lux second

Light exposure

lx.s

lux-sekonde

1 lm.m-2.s


Mach (also Mach number)

Ratio of speed relative to speed of sound

Mach

Mach (ook Mach-getal)

Mach 1 = ????

km.h-1 at NTP

man-sievert

Collective dose equivalent

man-Sv

man-sievert

1 man-sievert

maxwell

Magnetic flux (cgs)

Mx

maxwell

1 x 10-8 Wb

mega-

Prefix

M

mega-

106

mega-ampere per square metre

Electric current density

MA.m-2

mega-ampère per vierkante meter

1 × 106 A.m-2


megacoulomb

Electric charge;

Quantity of electricity

MC

megacoulomb

1 x 106 C

megacoulomb per cubic metre

Electric volume charge density

MC.m-3

megacoulomb per kubieke meter

1 x 106 C.m-3

megacoulomb per square metre

Electric surface charge density

MC.m-2

megacoulomb per vierkante meter

1 x 106 C.m-2

mega-electronvolt

Energy

MeV

mega-elektronvolt

1 x 106 eV

1,602 177 x 10-13 J

megagram

Mass

Mg

megagram

1 × 106 g


1 x 103 kg

megagram per cubic metre

Density

Mg.m-3

megagram per kubieke meter

1 × 106 g.m-3

1 x 103 kg.m-3

megahertz

Frequency

Mhz

megahertz

1 x 106 Hz

megajoule

Energy; etc

[see joule]

MJ

megajoule

1 x 106 J

megajoule per kilogram

Heat content; etc [see joule per kilogram]

MJ.kg-1

megajoule per kilogram

1 x 106 J.kg-1

meganewton

force

MN

meganewton

1 x 106 N

meganewton metre

Work

MN.m

meganewton-meter

1 x 106 N.m

meganewton per square metre

Pressure

MN.m-2

meganewton per vierkante meter

1 x 106 N.m–2

1 MPa

megaohm

Electric resistance

megaohm


1 x 106Ω

megaohm metre

Electric resistivity

MΩ.m

megaohm-meter

1 x 106Ω.m

megasiemens per metre

Electric conductivity

MS.m-1

megasiemens per meter

1 x 106 S.m-1

megavolt

Electric potential;

Electric potential difference

MV

megavolt

1 x 106 V

megavolt per metre

Electric field strength

MV.m-1

megavolt per meter

1 x 106 V.m-1

megawatt

Power

MW

megawatt

1 x 106 W

megawatt day

Power consumption

MW.d

megawatt-dag

8.64 × 1010 J

megawatt hour

Power consumption

MW.h

megawatt-uur

1 x 106 W.h

3.6 × 109 J

megawatt per square metre

Radiant energy fluence; etc [see watt per square metre]

MW.m-2

megawatt per vierkante meter

1 x 106 W.m-2

metre

Length; Distance; Wavelength

m

meter

1 m

metre per second

Velocity; Speed

m.s-1

meter per sekonde

1 m.s-1

metre per second squared

Acceleration

m.s-2

meter per sekonde per sekonde

meter per sekondekwadraat

1 m.s-2

metre squared

Surface area; Particle interaction cross section

m2

meterkwadraat

1 m2

metre squared per kilogram

Mass attenuation coefficient;

Mass energy transfer coefficient;

Mass energy absorption coefficient

m2.kg-1

meterkwadraat per kg

1 m2.kg-1






metre squared joule

Air Kerma rate constant

m2.J.kg-1

meterkwadraat-joule per kg

1 m2.J.kg-1

metre squared gray per becquerel per second

Air Kerma rate constant (earlier known as T, i.e. specific gamma ray constant)

m2.Gy.

Bq-1.s-1

meterkwadraat-gray per becquerel per sekonde

1 m2.Gy.Bq-1.s-1

metre squared per second

Kinematic viscosity;

Diffusion coefficient

m2.s-1

meterkwadraat per sekonde

1 m2.s-1

metric horsepower [see horsepower (metric)]

Power

ch or PS

metrieke perdekrag

735,499 W

metric ton

Mass

t

metrieke ton

1000 kg

metric ton per cubic metre

Density

t.m-3

metrieke ton per kubieke meter

1 x 103 kg.m-3

mho (reciprocal ohm or siemens)

Electric conductance

mho

mho



1 Ω-1

1S

micro-

Prefix

µ

mikro-

10-6

microampere

Electric current

µA

mikroampère

1 x 10-6 A

microbar

Pressure

µbar

microbar

1 x 10-6 bar

microfarad

Electric capacitance

µF

microfarad

1 x 10-6 F

microfarad per metre

Permittivity;

Capacitance per unit length

µF.m-1

mikrofarad per meter

1 x 10-6 F.m-1

microgram

Mass

µg

microgram

1 x 10-6 g

microhenry

Electric inductance

µH

mikrohenry

1 x 10-6 H

microhenry per metre

Permeability;

Inductance per unit length

µH.m-1

mikrohenry per meter

1 x 10-6 H.m-1

micrometre

Length;

Distance;

Wavelength

µm

mikrometer

1 x 10-6 m

micron

Length

µm

mikron

1 x 10-6 m

micronewton

Force

µN

mikronewton

1 x 10-6 N

micronewton metre

Work;

Moment of force;

Torque

µN.m

mikronewton-meter

1 x 10-6 N.m

micronewton per square metre

Pressure

µN.m-2

mikronewton per vierkante meter

1 µPa

micro-ohm

Electric resistance

µΩ

mikro-ohm

1 x 10-6Ω

micro-ohm metre

Electric resistivity

µΩ.m

mikro-ohm-meter

1 x 10-6Ω.m

microradian

Angle (plane angle)

µrad

mikroradiaal

1 x 10–6 rad

microsecond

Time

µs

mikrosekonde


1 x 10-6 s

microvolt

Electric potential; etc [see volt]

µV

mikrovolt

1 x 10–6V

microvolt per metre

Electric field strength

µV.m-1

mikrovolt per meter

1 x 10–6V.m-1

mile (also statute mile)

Length;

Distance

mi or m

myl (ook landmyl)

1 609,3 m

1,609 3 km

mile (nautical) [see nautical mile]





mile per hour

Speed

m.h-1

myl per uur

0,4470 m/s

1,609 km.h-1

mil (milli-inch) (thou)

Thickness; Distance

mil

mil (milliduim)

2.54 x 10-5 m

25,4 µm

mil (circular)



mil (sirkulêr)

506,707 µm2






milli-

Prefix

m

milli-

10-3

milli-ampere

Electric current

mA

milliampère

1 x 10-3 A

millibar

Pressure

mbar

millibar

1 x 102 Pa

millifarad per metre

Permittivity; etc [see farad per metre]

mF.m-1

millifarad per meter

1 x 10–3 F.m-1

millimetre squared per second


mm2.s-1

millimeterkwadraat per sekonde

1 x 10-6 m2.s-1

millinewton per metre


mN.m-1

millinewton per meter

1 x 10-3 N.m-1

millinewton second per metre squared


mN.s.m-2

millinewton-sekonde per meterkwadraat

1 x 10-3 N.s.m-2

milliohm metre

Electric resistivity

mΩ.m

milliohm-meter

1 x 10-3Ω.m

milliradian

Angle

mrad

milliradiaal

1 x 10-3 rad

millimetre of mercury

Pressure

mmHg

millimeter kwik

133,322 Pa

millibar

Pressure

mbar

millibar

1 x 102 Pa

millisecond

Time

ms

millisekonde

1 x 10-3 s

millitorr

Pressure

mTorr

millitorr

0,133322 Pa

133,322 mPa


millivolt per metre

Electric field strength

mV.m-1

millivolt per meter

1 x 10-3 V.m-1

millivolt ampere

Power

mV.A

millivolt-ampère

1 x 10-3 V.A

milliwatt

Power

mW

milliwatt

1 x 10-3 W

minute (angle or arc)

Angle

...’

minuut (hoek- of boog-)

π/10 800 rad

minute (mean solar)

Time

min

minuut (gemiddeld, sontyd)

60 s

minute (sidereal)

Time


minuut (sterretyd) (of sterreminuut)

59,836 17 s

mole (also gram mole)

Substance quantity; (amount of substance);

Avogadro’s number

mol

mol

1 mol

mole per joule

Radiation chemical yield

mol.J-1

mol per joule

1 mol.J-1

mole per cubic metre

Concentration

mol.m-3

mol per kubieke meter

1 mol.m-3

mole per kilogram

Inverse of molar mass;

molality

mol.kg-1

mol per kilogram

1 mol.kg-1

mole per litre

Concentration

mol.l-1

mol per liter

1 mol.l-1

month

Time

mo

maand

2,628 Ms

morgen

Surface area


morg

856 5 m2

muid (or mud) (obsolete)

Volume


mud

10,911 x 10-2 m3






myriametre (USA)

Wavelength


miriameter (VSA)

10-4 m (104 m??????)

nano-

Prefix

n

nano-

10-9

nanoampere

Electric current

nA

nanoampère

1 x 10-9 A

nanofarad per metre

Permittivity;

Capacitance per unit length

nF.m-1

nanofarad per meter

1 x 10-9 F.m-1

nanometre

Length

nm

nanometer

1 x 10-9 m

nano-ohm metre

Resistivity

nΩ.m

nano-ohm-meter

1 x 10-9 Ω.m

nanosecond

Time

ns

nanosekonde

1 x 10-9 s

nanotesla

Magnetic flux density

nT

nanotesla

1 x 10-9 T

nautical mile

Length; Distance; (sea and air navigation)

nm (NM)

seemyl

1 853,2 m






neper (napier)

Natural logarithm; log of square of ratio of two quantities??????????????????

Np

napier

???????????????

Newton

Force

N

newton

1 kg.m.s-2

newton metre

Work;

Moment of force;

Torque

N.m

newton-meter

1 J


newton metre squared per ampere


N.m2.A-1

newton-meterkwadraat per ampère

1 N.m2.A-1

newton per metre

Surface tension

N.m-1

newton per meter

1 kg.s-2

1 N.m-1

newton per square metre

Pressure

N.m-2

newton per vierkante meter

1 N.m-2

1 Pa

newton second per square metre

Dynamic viscosity

N.s.-2.m-2

newton-sekonde per vierkante meter

1 N.s.m-2

nit (also candela per square metre)

Luminance

nt

nit

1 cd.m-2

oersted

Magnetic intensity (cgs)

Oe

oersted

79,577 A.m-1

ohm

Electric resistance;

Electric impedance;

Wave impedance

Ω

ohm

1 kg.m2.s-3.A-2

1 V.A-1

ohm metre

Electric resistivity

Ω.m

ohm-meter

1 Ω.m


ohm millimetre

Electric resistivity

Ω.mm

ohm-millimeter

1 x 10-3Ω.m

ounce (avoirdupois)

Mass

oz avdp

ons (avoirdupois)

0,028 349 5 kg

28,349 5 g

ounce (apothecaries’ or troy)

Mass

oz

ons (aptekers- of troois)

0,031 103 5 kg

31,103 5 g

ounce (UK) (also fluid ounce)

Volume

fl oz

ons (VK)

28,413 ml

ounce (USA) (also fluid ounce)

Volume

fl oz

ons (VSA) (ook vloeistofons)

29,573 ml

parsec (parallax second)

Distance (astronomy)

pc

parsek (parallakssekonde)

3.086 x 1016 m

pascal

Pressure, Stress

Pa

pascal

1 kg.m-1.s-2

1 N.m-2


pascal second

Dynamic viscosity

Pa.s

pascal-sekonde

1 kg.m-1.s-1

peck (UK)

Volume

pk

peck (VK)

9,092 18 x 10-3.m3

9,092 18 l

peck (USA)

Volume

pk

peck (VSA)

8,809 768 x 10-3.m3

8,809 768 l

pennyweight

Mass

dwt

(also pwt)

pennyweight

1,555 2 g

per degree Celsius

Inverse of degree Celsius

Coefficient of thermal expansion

°C-1

per graad Celsius

1 °C-1

per henry

Inverse of inductance;

Reluctance

H-1

per henry

1 H-1


per kelvin

Inverse of temperature;

Coefficient of thermal expansion

K-1

per kelvin

1 K-1

per metre

Linear attenuation coefficient;

Macroscopic cross-section;

Linear absorption coefficient;

Linear energy absorption coefficient;

Wave number

m-1

per meter

1 m-1

per ohm

Inverse of electric resistance

Ω-1

per ohm

1 Ω-1

per ohm metre

Inverse of electric resistivity

Ω-1.m-1

per ohm-meter

1 Ω-1.m-1

per second

Frequency;

Radioactivity;

Particle flux;

Decay constant;

Source strength

s-1

per sekonde

1 s-1

per square metre

Particle fluence

m-2

per vierkante meter

1 m-2

per square metre per second

Fluence rate;

Flux density

m-2.s-1

per vierkante meter

1 m-2.s-1






per square metre per second per steradian

Particle radiance;

Angular fluence rate;

Angular flux density

m-2.s-1.sr-1

per vierkante meter per sekonde per steradiaal

1 m-2.s-1.sr-1

perm inch (0 °C)

Degree of permeability

(porous reservoir structure)


perm-duim (0 °C)

1,453 22 x 10-12 kg.m.N-1.s-1


perm (0 °C)

Degree of permeability

(porous reservoir structure)


Perm (°C)

5,721 4 x 10-11 kg. N-1.s-1


peta-

Prefix

P

peta-

1015

phot

Illuminance;

Illumination

ph

fot

10 klx

1 cm-2.cd.sr

1,47 mW.m-2

pi

Constant

pi

3,141 593

pico-

Prefix

p

piko-

10-12

picoampere

Electric current

pA

pikoampère

1 x 10-12 A

picofarad per metre

Capacitance per unit length

pF.m-1

pikofarad per meter

1 x 10-12 F.m-1

pica (computer, = 1/6”)

Letter type width

pc

pika (rekenaar)

4,233 33 × 10-3 m

0,423 333 mm

pica (printers)

Letter type width

pc

pika (drukkers)

4,217 52 x 10-3 m

0,421 752 mm

pièze

Pressure

pieze

pièze

1 kPa

pint (UK)

Volume

pt

pint (VK)

5,68 × 10-4 m3

0,568 l (check???)

pint (USA dry)

Volume

dry pt

pint (VSA droog)

5,506 × 10-4 m3

0,550 6 l

pint (USA liquid)

Volume

liq pt

pint (VSA droog)

4,732 × 10-4 m3

0,473 2 l

point (computer) (1/72”)

Printers’ measure

pt

punt (rekenaar)

0,352 778 × 10-3 m

0,352 778 mm

point (printers)

Printers’ measure

pt

punt (drukkers)

0,351 460 x 10-3 m

0,351 460 mm

poise

Viscosity (cgs)

P

poise

0,1 Pa.s

1 cm-1.g.s-1

poundal

Force (fps)


pondaal

138,26 mN

pound (avoirdupois)

Mass

lb

pond

0,453 592 4 kg

453,59 24 g

pound-force

Force

lbf

pondkrag

4,448 N

pound-force foot

Torque

lbf.m

pondkrag-voet

1,355 8 Nm

pound-force per square inch

Force; Pressure

lbf.in-2

pondkrag per vierkante duim

6,794 8 kPa

pound per square inch

Pressure (Incorrectly???)

lb.in-2 or psi

pond per vierkante duim

6,895 kPa

pound per square inch

Surface mass density

lb.in-2

pond per vierkante duim

7,031 kg.m–2

quart (UK)

Volume

qt

kwart (VK)

1,136 52 l

quart (USA. dry)

Volume (dry)

dry qt

kwart (VSA, droog)

1,101 22 l

quart (USA, liquid)

Volume (liquid)

liq qt

kwart (VSA, vloeistof)

0,946 35 l

rad (obsolete)

Absorbed radiation dose;

Kerma

rad

rad

10 mJ.kg-1

0,01 Gy

rad per hour (obsolete)

Absorbed dose rate;

Kerma rate

rad.h-1

rad per uur

0,01 Gy.h-1

radian

Angle (plane angle)

rad

radiaal

m.m-1 = 1 (dimensionless / dimensieloos)

(180/π)°

radian per second

angular velocity

rad.s-1

radiaal per sekonde

1 rad.s-1

radian per second squared

Angular acceleration

rad.s-2

radiaal per sekonde per sekonde

1 rad.s-2

Rankine (degree Rankine)

Thermodynamic temperature

°R

Rankine (grade Rankine)

5/9 K

rem (obsolete)

Dose equivalent

rem

rem

0,01 Sv

rem per hour

Dose equivalent rate (obsolete)

rem.h–1

rem per uur

0,01 Sv.h-1

revolutions per minute

Rotational frequency

r.min-1

Omwentelinge per minuut

1/60 s–1

π/30 rad.s–1

rod (UK and USA)

Length

rd

roede

5,029 m

röntgen (obsolete also roentgen)

Exposure to radiation

R

röntgen

2,58 x 10-4 C.kg-1

258 µC.kg-1


röntgen per hour (obsolete, also roentgen per hour)

Exposure rate

R.h-1

röntgen per uur

0,01 Sv.h-1

rood (Cape)

Length


roede (Kaapse)

3,778 m

rydberg

Energy (nuclear physics)

ry

rydberg

??????????????

sabin

Acoustic absorption


sabin


rhe

Dynamic fluidity


rhe

10 Pa-1.s-1

scruple (apothecaries)

Mass

s apoth

skrupel (aptekers)

1,295 98 x 10-3 kg

1,295 98g

sea mile (see nautical mile)





second

Time

s

sekonde

1 s

second (sidereal)

Time

s

sekonde (sterretyd) (of sterresekonde)

0,997 27 s

second (angle or arc)

Angle

...”

sekonde (hoek- of boog-)


π/648 000 rad

4,848 µrad

shed

Transfer probability

shed

shed

1 x 10-52 m2

siemens (also mho)

Electric conductance

S

siemens (ook mho)

1 Ω-1

siemens per metre

Electric conductivity

S.m-1

siemens per meter

1 S.m-1

sievert

Dose equivalent (SI);

Equivalent dose;

Effective dose

Sv

sievert

1 J.kg-1

sievert per hour

Dose equivalent rate;

Effective dose rate

Sv.h-1

sievert per uur

Sv.h-1

2,777 78 × 10–4 Sv.s-1

slug

Mass


slug

14,593 9 kg

square centimetre

Surface area

cm2

vierkante sentimeter

1 x 10-4 m2

square kilometre

Surface area

km2

vierkante kilometer

1 x 106 m2

square metre

Surface area;

Particle interaction cross section

m2

vierkante meter

1 m2

square metre per kilogram

Mass attentuation coefficient;

Mass energy transfer coefficient

m2.kg-1

vierkante meter per kilogram

1 m2.kg-1

square metre per second

Kinematic viscosity

Thermal diffusivity

m2.s-1

vierkante meter per sekonde

1 m2.s-1

square millimetre

Surface area

mm2

vierkante millimeter

1 x 10-6 m2

standard atmosphere [see atmosphere (standard)]










standard acceleration of gravity

Acceleration

gn

standaard gravitasie-versnelling

9,806 65 m.s-2

statampere

Electrostatic unit of current (cgs)

statA

statampère

3,3 × 1010 A

statfarad

Electrostatic unit of capacity (cgs)

statF

statfarad

1,112 7 × 10–12 F

1,112 7 pF

stathenry

Electrostatic unit of inductance (cgs )

statH

stathenry

8,957 55 × 1011 H


statvolt

Electrostatic unit of potential (cgs )

statV

statvolt

299,792 V

statcoulomb

Electrostatic unit of charge (cgs)

statC

statcoulomb

3,3 x 10-10 C

statohm

Electrostatic unit of resistance (cgs)

statΏ

statohm

8,957 55 × 1011 Ώ

statute mile [see mile]





steradian (also sterad)

Solid angle

sr

steradiaal

m2.m-2 = 1

sthène

Force (mks)


sthène

1 x 103 N

stere

Volume

st

stere

1 m3

stilb

Luminance

sb

stilb

1 × 104 cd.m-2

10 kcd.m-2

stokes

Kinematic viscosity (cgs)

St

stokes

1 x 10-4 m2.s-1

100 mm2.s-1

1 cm2.s–1


stone

Mass


stone

6,350 3 kg

tablespoon (UK)

Volume

tbsp

eetlepel (VK)

14,206 53 ml

tablespoon (USA)

Volume

tbsp

eetlepel (VSA)

14,786 76 ml

teaspoon (UK)

Volume

tsp

teelepel (VK)

4,735 51 ml

teaspoon (USA)

Volume

tsp

teelepel (VSA)

4,928 92 ml

talbot

Light quantity


talbot

1 lm.s

tera-

Prefix

T

tera-

1012

terahertz

Frequency

Thz

terahertz

1 x 1012 Hz

tesla

Magnetic flux density;

Magnetic induction;

Magnetic polarization

T

tesla

1 kg.s-2.A-1

1 V.s.m-2

1 Wb.m-2

1 N.A-1.m-1

tex

Yarn mass unit;

Linear density;

Mass per unit length

tex

tex

1 mg.m-1

thou (milli-inch) [See mil]





therm (EC)

Energy


term (EC)

105,506 MJ

therm (USA)

Energy


therm (VSA)

105,480 MJ

thermie

Energy


thermie

4,1855 MJ

ton (long)

(2240 pounds)

Mass (UK)

longton (lt)

ton (groot of Engelse)

(2240 pond)

1 016,06 kg

ton (short)

(2000 pounds)

Mass

short ton (st)

ton (klein)

of Kaapse ton

907,2 kg

ton (metric), tonne

Mass

t

ton (metriek)

1 x 103 kg

1 Mg


torr

Pressure

Torr

torr

133,32 Pa

unit pole

Unit of magnetic flux


eenheidspool

125,664 nWb

volt

Electric potential;

Voltage;

Potential difference;

Electromotive force

V

volt

1 m2.kg.s-3.A-1

1 J.A-1.s-1

1 W.A.-1

volt ampere

Power

V.A

volt-ampère

1 V.A

volt ampere reactive

Reactive power (electrical engineering)

var

volt-ampère-reaktief


volt per centimetre

Electric field strength

V.cm-1

volt per sentimeter

1 x 102 V.m-1

volt per metre

Electric field strength

V.m-1

volt per meter

1 V.m-1

volt second


V.s

volt-sekonde

1 V.s

watt

Power;

Radiant flux;

Radiant energy flux;

Radiant power;

Acoustic power

W

watt

1 J.s-1

watt hour

Energy; Power consumption

W.h

watt-uur

3,6 kJ

watt per metre degree Celsius

Thermal conductivity

W.m-1. °C

watt per meter-graad Celsius

1 W.m-1.°C

1 W.m-1.K-1

watt per metre kelvin

thermal conductivity

W.m-1.K-1

watt per meter-kelvin

1 W.m-1.K-1

watt per square metre

Radiant energy fluence rate;

Radiant energy flux density;

Irradiance;

Radiant excitance;

Surface power density;

Acoustic intensity

W.m-2

watt per vierkante meter

1 W.m-2

watt per square metre per kelvin

Coefficient of heat transfer

W.m-2.K-1

watt per vierkante meter per kelvin

W.m-2.K-1

watt per square metre per steradian

Energy radiance

W.m-2.sr-1

watt per vierkante meter per steradiaal

W.m-2.sr-1


watt second

Energy

W.s

watt-sekonde

1 J

watt per steradian

Radiant intensity

W.sr-1

watt per steradiaal

W.sr-1

weber

Magnetic flux

Wb

weber

1 kg.m2.s-2.A-1

1 V.s

1 T.m2

weber metre

Magnetic dipole moment

Wb.m

weber-meter

1 Wb.m

weber per metre

Magnetic vector potential

Wb.m-1

weber per meter

1 Wb.m-1

weber per square metre

Magnetic flux density

Wb.m-2

weber per meterkwadraat

1 T

Weber per millimetre


Wb.mm-1

weber per millimeter

1 x 103 Wb.m-1

week

Time

wk

week

604,8 ks

yard

Length

yd

jaart

0,914 4m

year (calender)

Time

y

jaar (kalender), kalenderjaar

31,536 Ms

(365,0 days)

year (sidereal)

Time

sid.y

jaar (sterretyd), sterrejaar

31,558 15 Ms

year (tropical), solar year, equinox year

Time

tr.y

jaar (tropies), sonjaar

31,556 9 Ms

© 2000 Suid Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns. ’n Projek van die Terminologiedivisie van die Nasionale Taaldiens van die Departement Kuns, Kultuur, Wetenskap en Tegnologie. Alle regte voorbehou.

Hierdie werk mag vir privaat akademiese gebruik gedupliseer word op voorwaarde dat:

(1) Die werk in sy geheel gedupliseer word.

(2) Hierdie kopieregkennisgewing by die kopie ingesluit word

(3) Geen verandering aan die werk gemaak word nie.

(4) Die kopie sonder winsbejag gelewer word.